The Alexander Garden, Manezh square, Kremlin, Sophia embankment, monument to Peter the Great, Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Bolshoi Theatre, Theatre Square, Tverskaya Street and Pushkin Square, New Arbat Street, Triumphal Arch, Kutuzov Avenue, The White House,Poklonnaya hill, the New Maiden Convent (without getting in), the Sparrow Hills.
The street plan of central Moscow forms an impressively
ordered pattern of concentric circles, clearly marking out the city's
development outwards over the centuries. In the middle of this great
Catherine wheel is the Kremlin, the fortified hill which formed the
heart of the ancient city, and which to this day houses the political HQ
of the planet's largest nation. Within the world-famous red walls
nestles a collection of buildings of various of architectural styles,
ranging from ancient Russian ecclesiastical, through Romanov imperial
classicism, to 1960s soviet modernism. While much is out of bounds to
tourists, being part of the Government and Presidential estate, there
are easily enough treasures open to the public to make the citadel an
the 19th Century
museum purpose-built to house the nation's gob-smacking collection of
gold, silver, arms and imperial clothes and carriages. They also hold a
collection of the infamous and rarely glimpsed Faberge eggs.
the south-western part of Cathedral Square stands the graceful
Cathedral of the Annunciation with its nine gilded domes. It was built
in 1484-1489 by master builders from Pskov, as a royal family church for
the Grand Duke of Moscow, where the sacraments of marriage and baptism
The cathedral was built in keeping with the traditions of early Moscow architecture, but also incorporated elements of Pskov architecture. There are two staircases with tall porches by which one can enter the cathedral from the square.
For a long time the cathedral was the main church of Moscow’s dukes. During grand ceremonies held in Cathedral Square the ruling duke (and later the tsar) and his retinue made their appearance from this cathedral. Inside is the oldest Russian multi-tiered iconostasis, with icons dating from the 14th-16th centuries, some of which were painted by Andrey Rublev, Theophanes
Cathedral of Assumption
The grandfather of all
the Kremlin churches, the Assumption Cathedral is the oldest and the
biggest. Built in 1475 by Italian architect Aristotle Fiorovanti, this
is where Ivan the Terrible was crowned Emperor here in 1547 before
becoming a stable for Napoleon's horses in 1812. Their soldiers made off
with the chandliers now hanging overhead. The cossacks brought them
back after they caught up with the lightfingered Frenchmen. In 1918 the
last Easter service was held here. Services resumed in 1990. Inside the
many hefty chandeliers, some weighing over 5tonnes.
Cathedral of the Archangel Michael
five-domed Cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel was the last of the
great churches to be erected on the Kremlin's Cathedral Square and was
the exulted burial place for the rulers of Muscovy, from the Grand Duke
Ivan I (1328-1341) to Tsar Ivan V (1682-1696), the half-brother of Peter
the Great.The cathedral was built between 1505 and 1508 by the Italian
architect Alevisio Novi on the site of an ancient cathedral of the same
name. Unlike the very traditionally Russian Cathedral of the Assumption,
the Cathedral of the Archangel clearly reflects architectural
influences from the Italian Renaissance, including Corinthian capitals
and Venetian-style shell scallops along the building's gables.
Also rather uncharacteristic of traditional Russian ecclesiastical architecture is the cathedral's asymmetrical layout, the differing sizes of its silver and gilt domes, the addition of several smaller chapels in the 16th century and the attachment of buttresses along the south wall when it cracked in 1773.
Church of the Deposition of the Robed
its name from an ancient festival where the Virgin's robes are
transferred from Palestine to Constantinople (now Istanbul), this is a
more modest cathedral nestled in a corner. Built in 1484- 1485 by
artists from Pskov, this church notably has stained glass windows. Along
with some fine icons, inside you can also find wooden sculptures from
the 15th century.
The museum was opened in
May, 1924, as a branch of the V.I.Lenin Institute. Since 1936 it has
been called the Central V.I.Lenin museum. More than 12,500 exhibits are
displayed in its three floors and 34 halls. The exhibits include the
first publications of his works, photostat copies of his manuscripts,
Vladimir Ilich's personal belongings, documentary photographs and
presents from the working people. Also on display are several Soviet
works of art-paintings. sculptures, graphics, and items of folk art
dedicated to V. I.Lenin.
St. Basil's Church
St. Basil's Cathedral was commissioned by Ivan the Terrible and built on
the edge of Red Square between 1555 and 1561.
St. Basil's is a delightful array of swirling colors and redbrick towers. Its design comprises nine individual chapels, each topped with a unique onion dome and each commemorating a victorious assault on the city of Kazan. In 1588 the ninth chapel was erected to house the tomb of the church's namesake, Basil the Blessed.
In the small garden outside St. Basil's stands an impressive bronze Statue to Minin and Pozharsky, who rallied Russia's volunteer army during the Time of Troubles and drove out the invading Polish forces. They were an interesting duo - Dmitry Pozharsky was a prince, while Kuzma Minin was a butcher from Nizhny Novgorod. The statue was designed by the artist I. Martos and erected in 1818 as the city's first monumental sculpture. It originally stood in the center of Red Square in front of what is now the GUM Department Store, with Minin symbolically indicating to Pozharsky that the Poles were occupying the Kremlin and calling for its liberation. The Soviet authorities felt that the statue had become an obstacle during parades and after the construction of the Lenin Mausoleum Red Square, its position was considered rather ambiguous and was eventually moved to the garden in front of St. Basil's in 1936.
Vorobyevi Gory (Sparrow Hills)
and survey over 1000 years of history. It might be hard to imagine the
footprints of Napoleon when you are surrounded by kiosks and fast food
vendors, not to mention the souvenir touts. Still, you can get an idea
of the length and breadth of the capital from here, as well as seeing
which of Stalin’s Seven Sisters you can make out or play at counting the
gold onion globes. The parks on the way up from Vorobyei Gori provide
an excursion into treachery come winter (ice on wooden steps is always
going to be tricky) but in the summer months the park is a quick dip
into nature. Turn around for a glimpse of the great promise of education
for the people; Moscow State University (MGU) directly behind you. This
building is grand, the rest behind it are frightfully unspectacular
Borodino Battle Panorama Museum
150 years after one of the most famous battles in human history the
Borodino Battle museum is not to be missed. It has a collection of
weapons, ammunition, uniform and graphics, but main feature is the round
canvas painting, 115m wide and 15m high. Standing in the middle of this
panorama you experience up close the heroic (and bloody) battle during
the 1812 war between Russia and Napoleon’s Grand Army in the days before
CNN. The epic battle, which took place September 07, 1812, west of
Moscow, was one of the war’s decisive encounters. 250,000 soldiers took
part, of which a minimum of 67,000 perished. After Borodino Napoleon
took Moscow, the city he left soon after it was set on fire. The Russian
army led by General Kutuzov then chased the French all the way to
Paris. The Panorama museum is located at Kutuzovsky Prospekt, where you
also can find the 28m high Triumphal arch devoted to the war with
Monastery or convent,
this place occupies a very specific place in Russian history. On the
grounds surrounded by the Kremlinesque walls are four cathedrals
including the majestic four-onion globes of Smolensky Cathedral. Founded
by Ivan the Terrible in 1524, it was here that Peter the Great
imprisoned his sister Sophia and executed her supporters from the
Strelsty rebellion. Today it is a magnificient and peaceful cloister
with an impressive icon collection.
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (khram Khrista Spasitela) in Moscow may
be the largest Orthodox church in the world. The building is
magnificent, but not as old as it looks: it was rebuilt in 2000 after
the original was demolished by Stalin
State History Museum
largest historic museum of Russia, the State Historical Museum, was
established in 1872 on the initiative of the Russian scientific
Today the collection of the Museum treasures archeological finds, manuscripts and black-letter books, old Russian icons, Russian and foreign arming, works of smith craft, jewelry, glass and ceramics, national clothes, collection of old furniture from the private estates and many more. Private belongings of Russian monarchs Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great and the last members of the Romanov family are especially popular with the visitors.
The Museum collection of fine arts that numbers over 500,000 items is quite impressive. It includes portraits of outstanding Russian and foreign politicians, landscapes of different regions of Russia, water-colors, drawings and lithographs. It is noteworthy that the Museum features not only the works of the celebrated masters but also paintings by unknown talented artists.
The permanent exhibition is designed so that each of the halls is devoted to certain period of history. The rich interior decor corresponds with the time and style of the exhibits placed there. Frescos, moldings, carvings and other decorations create the unique atmosphere of the past.
History of Moscow Museum
The Museum of History of Moscow is one of the oldest museums of the city. Its collection was based on the exhibits of the pavilion "Moscow" at the All-Russian Artistic and Industrial exhibition, which was held in Nizhny Novgorod in 1896. There the Moscow City Administration displayed its achievements in providing the city with all amenities, improving its medical and sanitary conditions, in a public education, charity. Just in this year the Museum of Moscow Municipal Facilities and Services was opened by the order of the Moscow City Duma. The Museum was located in one of the Krestovsky Towers. The Museum changed its name and location several times within a hundred years’ history. In 1921 the Museum was called Moscow Municipal Museum and was located in Sukhareva Tower - the restored monument of 17th century. Under the influence of the plan of Moscow’s reconstruction accepted in 1935 the name and an exposition’s character of the Museum were changed. In this time it was called the Museum of History and Reconstruction of Moscow and moved into the building of the Church of John the Theologian " under the Elm", were it is located now. Since 1987 the Museum is called the Museum of History of Moscow.
Contemporary Russian History Museum
Museum of Contemporary History of Russia is the largest museum
establishment in the world devoted to New History. It was started as far
back as in March 1917 when Russia had overthrown monarchy. Presently
the Museum collection numbers more then 2 million plus items reflecting
the most crucial moments and events that have shaped Russian society and
State during the last one and a half century. The Museum exposition has
on display the reign of the last three Russian emperors, political
career of the statesmen and Party leaders, history and ideology of
different political parties and public movements, life and work of
well-known scientists and cultural figures; everyday life and customs of
people are broadly presented.
The Museum collection is continually being increased to show the latest events in Russian history.
Great Patriotic War Museum 1941-1945
to the Great Patriotic War, this museum opened in 1995 on the 50th
anniversary of the Great Victory. The museum houses a set of evocative
battle dioramas on the ground floor. Immediately as you enter, you see
the Commanders Hall and Grand Staircase leading up to the Hall of Glory,
a solemn memorial space. Further along there is the exhibition hall
with exhibits about the different battles and parties involved.
visitors anxious to uncover the mysteries of the famous 'Russian soul',
the Tryetakov Gallery is the place to start. Founded in 1856 by
influential collector Pavel Tryetakov, it is the world's number one
museum of Russian art. Ranging from exquisite and mysterious 12th
century icons to the politically charged and prescient canvases of
Russia's favorite realist master, Ilya Repin, the collection is a rich
and revealing insight into the history and attitudes of this long
suffering yet inspired people.
Tretyakov Gallery at Krymsky Val
development of Russian art of the 20th century - from avant-garde of
the 1900's to the creative quest of painters of the 1980's and 1990's -
is presented in the new premises of the Tretyakov Gallery on Krymsky
Val. Masters of other styles are also widely presented - from the
expressionism and traditional realism to social realism that became the
official style of the totalitarian epoch of the 1930-1950's. The
nonconformist art of the 1960-1970's, known as "The second wave of
Russian avant-garde" is also presented. Special collections reflecting
the newest trends in contemporary art complete the exposition.
Andrey Rublyev Museum of Ancient Russian Culture and Art
This unique museum is the resting place for some of the most precious examples of Russian Orthodox art.
This incomparable and unusual museum lies in the ground of the Andronikov Monastery, which was founded in the 14th century and long considered one of Russia's most important religious centres, involved in many of the country's defining historical and cultural events.
The museum's collection contains the greatest icons gathered from all over central and northern Russia. Here you'll find the richest collection of icons from the Moscow, Tver' and Northern schools of the 14th to the 19th century. Experts also praise the fragments of monumental religious art and the ancient wooden sculptures on display.
Moscow Museum of Modern Art
great sculpture garden of sculptures by Tsereteli (Moscow's
contemporary art guardian and self-promoter) offers the introduction to
the contemporary Moscow art scene. Travel through the different phases
of Russian art from the avant garde of the past with Malevich,
Kandinsky, the Georgian Niko Pirosmani, Natalia Goncharova and some
early offerings from the wundergroup AES group. The downstairs is
devoted to temporary contemporary art, while upstairs you'll find a
history lesson of the Russian avant-garde. The museum is located in an
old merchant’s mansion, renovated to become an great exhibition space.
Also there’s the odd exhibit from non-Russian contemporary artists.
Moscow State Museum Burganov's House
House is first and foremost the functioning workshop of Alexander
Burganov (1935 -), one of Russia’s most famous living sculptors. His
contemporary masterpieces, which can also be seen in many European
capital cities, greet you from trees, windowsills and the neighboring
buildings surrounding the house’s courtyard - a type of open-air
sculpture garden. Inside the house, Burganov’s smaller works, including
several paintings, are on display.
Kolomenskoye Museum Estate
village of Kolomenskoye situated in the southern part of Moscow is a
unique place where the relics of Russian history were created and kept
for centuries. Close to Kolomenskoye there is the oldest on the
territory of Moscow settlement - known as Dyakovo Gorodishche - that is
2,5 thousand years old. Nowadays Kolomenskoye Museum-Preserve is one of the most picturesque and popular places in Moscow.
Kuskovo Park and museum
park is one of the oldest country estates in Moscow. It was given to
General Sheremetev by Peter the Great in 1715, but was left to fall into
neglect before being plundered by Napoleon’s troops in 1812. Nowadays
the estate has been restored to its former glory and is a good example
of Russian 18th Century imperial architecture.
Tsaritsino, an architectural and landscape ensemble in Moscow's southeast, a specimen of the neo-Gothic style. At first, in the 17th century, it belonged to the Streshnevs, a boyar family and when, from the year 1712, to the Kantemir princes. Later, in the 18th century, Empress Catherina II acquired the estate for her country residence. The complex includes the Large Palace, The Small Palace. They linked by a gallery with a tracery archway of the gate, and the Grand Cavalry Stables form an architectural focus of the complex. The bread House stands back of these palatial structures. The ponds add to the charm, next to one of them, on a steep ground slope, stands the Opera House. The concerts are arranged in the Hall of Opera regulary. The scene is further enhanced by the ornamental bridge over the road to Kolomenskoye, the Smaller Palace of Catherine the Great, and the figures gate at the turn of the alley.
The town is named in the honor of Saint Sergey Radonezhsky – the founder of one of the biggest and the most significant monasteries in Russia – Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra (XIV-XVIth c.). The architectural ensemble of Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra is included in the list of UNESCO; it is a unique museum in the open air. Many famouse icons, monuments of antiquity and treasures are stored here. Nowadays there are functioning monastery, seminary and Ecclesiastical Academy. 5 churches are opened to the public, and it is possible to listen to the choirs.
NB: women should cover their heads when they enter the cathedrals and churches. Visit to Sergiev Posad is an excellent opportunity to enjoy the Russian countryside, to see an overwhelming panoramic view of the holy Trinity from the “Pancake” Hill and to make some shopping.
in popular Moscow legend, this is where Bulgakov, the author of Master
and Margarita lived and wrote his famous novel. Today it is an artist
gathering place with exhibitions of contemporary Russian artists and a
historical exhibition dedicated to the house' most famous inhabitant.
never went out of favor even during the Soviet years. His museum opened
here for the first time in 1953, and underwent a spring clean in 2003.
The objects remain authentic, a little too authentic when you see the
tiny metal bed he slept on. It was from this red castle-like house that
he left to go on his epic jaunt to Sakhalin, at that time the journey
took around three months. It was here that the music lover, who lived
here with his mother, brother Mikhail and sister Maria, received
patients, continuing his work as a doctor. Tchaikovsky came to thank him
for the personal dedication in his book Gloomy People. Also upstairs
there are exhibitions following the life of the great writer and a
surprising number of photos and a display showing different dramatic
productions of his plays around the world.
is one for fans of the great man. An ode to surrealism, this museum is a
structural rendition of Mayakovski’s life and works and is spread out
over four floors. It is a shame that tours are only available in Russian
as the presentation of the exhibits is superb. From childhood, through
to fame and his eventual suicide, there's industrial installations,
theatre playbills, scraps of poetry and photographs and at the end, a
collection of several Soviet busts of the poet.
Lev Tolstoy Museum
to the life of the man behind War and Peace and Anna Karenina, this is a
reverential place packed with personal and literary material. A complex
and conflicted individual, the exhibits trace his life from childhood
to death and the emergence of his major works. Easy to follow due to
some great carded English translations, this is a good introduction to
Central Botanical Gardens
This 360-hectare park
belonging to the Russian Academy of Sciences, can be enjoyed in all
seasons. In autumn, when the leaves are changing colors, it is worth the
extra 30 rubles to visit the Japanese garden towards the rear of the
park. Several Japanese-style pavilions give you a place to view the
surrounding tranquility of the garden's rock-bridges and ponds. In the
late spring, don't miss the blooming of the rose garden, which contains
thousands of different species. In colder months, the snow-covered oak
grove and the dendraium's tree-lined paths make quite enjoyable
promenades. But if you are looking to escape the Russian winter for a
few hours, the garden's the glass-covered orangery, which houses many
tropical and sub-tropical plants, is open all year round.
Cold War Museum (ZKP Taganski)
of Cold War is a unique museum dedicated to important period in human
history named Cold War. Museum transfers you to 50th when relationship
between USA and Soviet Union became critical and world lived in
expectation of atomic war. Museum represents a nuclear bunker which was
built in 1951 by the order of Stalin. Bunker was built with the same
techniques like a metro and actually bunker has a common tunnels with
Moscow subway. Amazing fact that this really huge atomic bunker lays
under center of Moscow city under Taganskaya square. This museum
represents a spectacular example of modern and unusual museum. If you
want to feel yourself in mysterious and scary time this museum is for
you! Exposition of museum includes old radio-stations, chemical attack
suite, oxygen masks and other radiation protection things. Before the
unforgettable excursion every tourist gets red-pass of Soviet Ministry
of Defense with his own name and with photo of unknown in oxygen mask.
This enormous museum covers the whole of Russia’s advance towards the technological age. The history of the development of hundreds of everyday useful things such as the TV, radio, light bulb and the clock is illustrated with thousands of antique samples. As well as beautiful Zenit cameras, huge gramophones, original Thomas Edison photos and Pathe cinema projectors, there are also models of drilling equipment, nuclear powers stations and 50 year old space food. Fans of Soviet design will be beside themselves when they see the Soviet versions of the Sony Walkman and Yamaha keyboard. Up on the top floor there is one of the world’s oldest computers from the late 1950s along with the first (very ugly) Apple Mac and the museum’s very own robo-guide from the 1970s.
museum, the only one of its kind, situated inside an enormous monument
to the explorers of the cosmos, is well worth the visit, not least for
the nostalgia it should inspire in anyone who grew up in the heady days
of the space race.
The displays trace the history of space exploration, including the first interplanetary satellite flights, the first dogs in space and man's journeys to the cosmos. There's plenty of fun gadgetry, plus an excellently conceived display explaining how astronauts survive a space flight, all of which should be interesting for children.
Museum of Unique Dolls
The art of doll making in Russia, Germany and England over the last two centuries recieves special attention here. Even though there are just two rooms, these glass cabinets are packed with an army of traditional wax, plastic and cloth figures. Noteworthy exhibits are the Japanese dolls at their Shinto temple and the Swedish dolls with a three-faced head.